Computer Vision

1. Computer Vision

In this post, I will write about what is computer vision, a subfield of Artificial Intelligence , it’s types, model training in python, some completed projects, and possible research areas in the fields so, let’s get started!

Computer Vision

Computer vision is a field of study that focuses on enabling machines to recognize, interpret, and understand visual information from the world around them, using artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques. The goal of computer vision is to enable machines to perform tasks that normally require human visual capabilities, such as object recognition, image and video analysis, facial recognition, and gesture recognition.

How Does Computer Vision Work?

It works by using algorithms and mathematical models to analyze visual data from images or videos. The process typically involves the following steps:

    1. Image acquisition: A digital image or video is captured by a camera or other imaging device.
    2. Pre-processing: The image or video is pre-processed to improve its quality and reduce noise or other artifacts. This may involve operations such as filtering, color correction, and resizing.
    3. Feature extraction: The image or video is analyzed to identify important features or patterns, such as edges, corners, or textures, that can be used to describe the visual content.
    4. Object recognition or detection: The features extracted from the image or video are compared against a database of known objects or patterns to identify and locate specific objects of interest. This may involve techniques such as template matching, object segmentation, or machine learning algorithms such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs).
    5. Scene interpretation: The objects detected in the image or video are analyzed in the context of the overall scene to understand their relationships and significance. This may involve techniques such as semantic segmentation or object tracking.
    6. Decision-making: Based on the results of the analysis, a decision or action is taken, such as alerting a human operator or controlling a robotic system.

Computer Vision Types

Computer vision can be broadly categorized into several types based on the type of visual data being processed, the specific tasks being performed, and the techniques used. Some of the common types of computer vision include:

    1. Image processing: This involves manipulating digital images to enhance or extract useful information from them, such as image filtering, edge detection, and image segmentation.
    2. Object detection and tracking: This involves detecting the presence of specific objects within an image or video, and tracking their movement across a sequence of images or video frames.
    3. Recognition and classification: This involves recognizing and classifying objects or patterns within images or videos, such as facial recognition, character recognition, and object recognition.
    4. Pose estimation and action recognition: This involves detecting and estimating the position and orientation of objects, and recognizing specific actions or movements within images or videos.
    5. Scene reconstruction and modeling: This involves creating 3D models of real-world scenes or objects using visual data.
    6. Motion analysis and optical flow: This involves analyzing the movement and flow of objects within images or videos, such as motion tracking, velocity estimation, and activity recognition.
    7. Image generation and synthesis: This involves generating or synthesizing images or videos based on learned representations or statistical models.

Object Recognition Model

Now I am sharing a simple example of an object recognition model using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture

First let’s see some steps to develop a model then it’s code:

Step 1: Data Preparation

We need a dataset of labeled images to train our model. We can use a public dataset like CIFAR-10, which consists of 60,000 32×32 color images in 10 classes, with 6,000 images per class. We will split this dataset into training and validation sets.

Step 2: Model Architecture

We will use a simple CNN architecture with the following layers:

    • Conv2D layer with 32 filters, kernel size 3×3, and activation function ReLU
    • MaxPooling2D layer with pool size 2×2
    • Conv2D layer with 64 filters, kernel size 3×3, and activation function ReLU
    • MaxPooling2D layer with pool size 2×2
    • Flatten layer to convert the 2D feature maps to 1D feature vectors
    • Dense layer with 128 units and activation function ReLU
    • Dense layer with 10 units (one for each class) and activation function softmax

Step 3: Model Compilation

We will compile the model using categorical cross-entropy as the loss function, Adam optimizer with a learning rate of 0.001, and accuracy as the evaluation metric.

Step 4: Model Training

We will train the model on the training set for 10 epochs with a batch size of 32. We will use early stopping to prevent overfitting.

Step 5: Model Evaluation

We will evaluate the model on the validation set and compute the accuracy.

Here’s a code snippet in Python using Keras to implement this model:

from keras.datasets import cifar10
from keras.models import Sequential
from keras.layers import Conv2D, MaxPooling2D, Flatten, Dense
from keras.optimizers import Adam
from keras.utils import to_categorical
from keras.callbacks import EarlyStopping

# Load CIFAR-10 dataset
(x_train, y_train), (x_test, y_test) = cifar10.load_data()

# Preprocess data
x_train = x_train.astype('float32') / 255
x_test = x_test.astype('float32') / 255
y_train = to_categorical(y_train)
y_test = to_categorical(y_test)

# Build model
model = Sequential()
model.add(Conv2D(32, (3, 3), activation='relu', input_shape=(32, 32, 3)))
model.add(MaxPooling2D((2, 2)))
model.add(Conv2D(64, (3, 3), activation='relu'))
model.add(MaxPooling2D((2, 2)))
model.add(Dense(128, activation='relu'))
model.add(Dense(10, activation='softmax'))

# Compile model
model.compile(loss='categorical_crossentropy', optimizer=Adam(lr=0.001), metrics=['accuracy'])

# Train model
early_stop = EarlyStopping(patience=3, verbose=1)
history =, y_train, batch_size=32, epochs=10, validation_data=(x_test, y_test), callbacks=[early_stop])

# Evaluate model
score = model.evaluate(x_test, y_test, verbose=0)
print('Test accuracy:', score[1])

This is just a basic example, but we can improve the model’s performance by experimenting with different architectures, hyperparameters, and data augmentation techniques.

Research Study

  • Szeliski, R. (2022). Computer vision: algorithms and applications. Springer Nature.

You can also check some interesting posts on machine learning from blog page:

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Happy reading!! 

Thank you 😊

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